Two Dimensional IP Routing

Project Overview

In current Internet routing, only destination address is used for forwarding decision making. This fundamentally limits the diversity of the functions and services that the Internet routing system can provide. TwoD-IP routing makes forwarding decisions based on both source and destination addresses.

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Basic Ideas

we propose to add source address in the Internet routing system so that routers can make forwarding decisions based on both the source and the destination address. This greatly enrich the semantics that the routing system can provide.


The forwarding table should match line speeds, and avoid storage explosion; The routing protocol should be consistent and efficiency; Deployment should be backward compatible, and bring visible gain if only partial routers are deployed.

Design and Development

We are going to develop new TwoD-IP routers that make forwarding decisions based on source and destination addresses. We are also going to design and deploy new TwoD-IP routing protocols.

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Applications of TwoD-IP

Load Balancing

With TwoD-IP routing, we can manipulate traffic with finer granularity. The benefit is that, when traffic towards the same destination passed by the same congested link, we can use source address to divert part of the traffic to other links.


Although provider-aggregatable (PA) address is recommended, however, it imposes heavy configurations on administrators. With TwoD-IP routing, there are multiple paths towards upstream ISPs. When one path is down, hosts can switch to another immediately.


With TwoD-IP routing, monitors can flexibly control the routing paths of probe packets. The benefit is that, by explicitly configuring the routing path, monitors can easily know the status of each element on the path.


In Internet routing, failures happen everyday. With TwoD-IP routing, the network can intrinsically provide multiple paths to the same destination. Thus, TwoD-IP routing can be used for link/node, or even path-level protection.

Multi-path Routing

The Internet routing can be more efficient with multi-path routing. With TwoD-IP routing, we can provide multiple paths towards the same destination at the same time. To achieve this, we simply let the host own multiple source addresses,

Policy Routing, etc.

An ISP wants the traffic from source address A to destination address B passes by router C. With TwoD-IP routing, routers in the network can easily identify the source and destination addresses, and divert the traffic to the designated path.

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We gratefully acknowledge funding from the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (supported by the National Basic Research Program of China, also called 973 Program), and National Development and Reform Commission.

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Get in touch.

For more information, please contact with yangshu at

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